Yasemin Şener, Architect
Stone has been a part of human life since its existence, thanks to its naturalness, durability and permanence. It also preserved the most important feature that met the shelter needs until the recent past. Stone structures, which can survive for thousands of years as long as they are not destroyed by natural disasters or by human hands, also played a very important role in bringing civilizations to new generations and understanding the development of human history. For this reason, architects and sculptors who wanted to immortalize their names throughout history preferred to make their works mostly from natural stones.
Natural stone is used as a massive and structural element until the 1800s. As of this date, with the effect of the industrial revolution that started all over the world, it lost this feature and started to be used more as a coating material. The last part, especially with the development of environmental awareness and the beginning of a return to nature, provided healthy, ecological, comfort and was remembered again due to its aesthetic qualities, but compared to the previous centuries, it still did not reach its deserved place in modern architecture.
Natural Stone Types
In general, travertine, white marble, colored marble and hard stones are divided into four groups with natural stones, which are widely available in the construction industry. It is preferred to concentrate on hard stones exported in polished, sized or non-sized slabs. Natural stones can be used with or without polishing in line with the characteristics of the place of use and the decisions made in the design. Granite, basalt and andesite cobblestones, tuff, tuffite, schist, gneiss and similar slate stones are used without polishing. These are especially preferred in open areas, fireplaces, barbecues and decorative items. Foça and Çanakkale regions in our country are known as areas where tuffs are used extensively. Quartz-based schists are used in facade coatings due to its resistance to icing, freezing and different natural conditions. Natural stones used by polishing are called “marble”. “Granite”, on the other hand, is known as the common name given to all kinds of natural stones that are harder than marble.
Tips for Stone Selection
It is possible to make various and aesthetic designs with natural stone materials of various colors, textures and hardness in architecture and decoration. However, it is necessary to choose not to use, to show it to its choice, to become ambiguous instead of. Hard marble with polished surface is mostly preferred for floor coverings because it is resistant to abrasion. At the same time, the polished surfaces provide a prestigious look to the space. Surface coatings and flooring applications roughened with special processes continue to be preferred recently.
Marble is mostly used in wet areas due to its indoor hygiene and its impermeability to heat, water and moisture. However, their resistance to acid can cause them to gain a stained appearance, especially when used on kitchen countertops. Colored and dark-colored stones should not be used in facade cladding, especially in parts facing south. Because over time, its colors fade, with a more accurate definition, the stone returns to its natural color. Black-colored bituminous marbles, which have organic-based coloring, can turn into a grayish color with the effect of daylight when used outdoors. For this reason, it is necessary to avoid black colored marble not only on the exterior, but also on the floors and walls that receive much sunlight indoors. It is no coincidence that the marble in ancient cities is white or light in color.
Since they are easily worn, soft and coarse crystalline marbles should not be preferred as flooring and step covering. These marbles are not preferred for flooring in wet areas as they absorb water into them. Accordingly, there is no harm in using them in interior wall coverings. The use of crystalline marble as a coating material in places where air pollution is intense is not because of its rapid contamination. Travertine is a natural stone that can be used in its natural porous form on the facade. It is inconvenient as it will have a dirty unit due to the dirt getting into the pores on the floor covering.
Travertine should not be used in environments where there is a lot of heat day and night and between seasons, where it is located, and where the circulation of people and goods is intense. Otherwise, it may become deformed and polluted over time.
It is not a preferred situation for composite marbles with abundant veins, capillary cracks and as a floor covering in indoor and outdoor areas. The circulation of people and goods in the flooring, changes in air and temperature can cause cracks and fractures in the marble in a short time. Especially beige marbles are often preferred for flooring because they are hard and durable.
Due to their high strength, hard stones can easily be used on the ground, especially in environments with intense circulation, facade and outdoor coatings.
Decoration of Stone
Houses Stone houses, which are longlasting, healthy, eco-system compatible, resistant to natural disasters, offer spaces that are respectful to nature and worth life for their users. Stone structures, which have a solid construction because they are made with the masonry technique, allow the circulation of healthy air in the space without causing heat loss as they breathe. While protecting from cold in winter and heat in summer, stone houses that save energy also caress the spirits like a work of art with their aesthetic lines.
Stone houses offer a life in touch with nature, far from the urban texture. For this reason, it is the right choice to use a style that is compatible with nature and stone material while shaping the interiors of stone houses. They suggest the choice of a comfortable, warm and inviting style in the decoration of stone houses, which creates a hard and cold visually and sensually. It is one of the most suitable styles for Provence style stone houses with peaceful pastel hues. Home textiles can be selected from light textured soft textile products, cotton, linen, lace and embroidery.
On the windows, instead of thick textured curtains, flowing tulle and light lace can be used. In order to have brighter spaces in stone houses, it is necessary to use the sun as the main light source, and to use simplicity in lighting products. While natural stones can be used on the walls, stone or raw-looking parquet and rugs can be used on the floors, mirrors, local accessories and most importantly, fresh wildflowers are the leading roles of pastoral life in accessories.
Why Stone Should Be Used?
Natural stone; It is a natural building material whose properties vary according to its type, type and the way the minerals that make up it are bonded. With these properties, it differs from all construction materials, but can be easily combined with many other materials. Since it is not a uniform industrial product, it is one of the most impressive qualities of the stone that it carries the traces of the formation process.
Natural stone is found almost ready in nature to be used as a building material. Energy is only required to quarry and process the stone, which is far less than that required for other building materials. Natural stones are usually cut from the quarry without making large explosions. Unused wastes are mixed back into nature or recycled.
Natural stone does not contain any harmful substances. It can be used safely in places where food is prepared. It is not flammable and does not release any harmful substance during fire.
Natural stones have unlimited color and texture variety. This diversity can be further increased by the processes applied to the surface. Natural stones are generally preferred due to their prestige, aesthetic appearance and technical properties. There is a suitable natural stone to meet almost every desired property in a building material.
Natural stones are extracted from the quarry in large blocks and can be cut to desired sizes. Therefore, there is no standard size in their production. Its dimensions and form can be determined according to need. Light-shadow effects can be created with surface treatments applied on the stone.
Natural stone, which has a history of thousands of years, does not deteriorate over time when the right choice is made according to the right place, it preserves its aesthetics and properties. While most building materials wear out and become ugly over the years, natural stone gains a unique and always aesthetic appearance over time. In addition, natural stones can be cleaned easily and without cost. Even several centuries-old natural stones can be restored to their original form.
If a cost calculation is made considering the useful life of a building material, it is seen that natural stone is not expensive than artificial materials. The initial cost is cheaper than other materials compared to life. The cost of cleaning and preservation is also low compared to artificial materials.
Natural stone absorbs heat well. When covered outside of buildings, it prevents unwanted heating and cooling of the building. While the energy required for the heating and cooling of a multi-storey building covered with natural stone is 100-150 kWh / m2 on average, this rate is 300-700 kWh / m2 in buildings with glass surface.
Natural stone has high pressure and abrasion resistance. Most of them have properties that can last forever in buildings. In terms of durability, only stainless steel can compete with natural stone, but its cost is very high. Granite and similar materials wear very little during human life.